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EFFECT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF AGRO DEALER FIRMS IN KAKAMEGA COUNTY, KENYA

Seth Yake Aloo - Student, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

Kifleyesus Andemariam - Lecturer, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya

Mary Nyiva - Lecturer, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The Government of Kenya has been implementing programmes with the aim of increasing agricultural productivity and rural incomes and thus increasing farmer’s access to modern farming inputs such as improved seed varieties and fertilizers, delivered mostly through agro-dealers. Despite this, agro- dealers face a challenge of satisfying the needs of these farmers due to heterogeneous environment they live in. The general objective of the study was to establish the effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on the financial performance of agro dealer firms in Kakamega County, Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The study population included all the 277 agro dealers registered under the regulatory body, Pest Control and Products Board (PCPB), some of who are members of an existing Kakamega county agro-dealers association and the Agrochemical Association of Kenya (AAK). Data was analyzed using both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages mean and standard deviation were used. Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between each of the constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and financial performance of agro dealer firms. The findings showed that there was a significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and financial performance of agro dealer firms in Kakamega County. There was also partial mediating effect of county policies and infrastructure on financial performance of agro dealer firms. Part of the impact on financial performance is directly as a result of entrepreneurial orientation while part of the impact is through the mediating effect of county policies and infrastructure.


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COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES AND PERFORMANCE OF TELECOMMUNICATION FIRMS IN KENYA

Dorcas Wanjiru Ngugi - Master of Business Administration Student (Strategic Management Option), Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr. Elishiba Murugi - Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Kenyatta University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Organizational performances are dependent on firm’s strategic practices. For organizational strategies to have an impact on a business the leadership style should be strategic. Telecommunications industry in Kenya has experienced heightened level of competition in both the voice and data service provision. Many companies have been facing declining performance evidenced by low profits and high losses. Telecommunication firms in Kenya experience numerous challenges from low subscription, pitiable connectivity in certain regions, staff retrenchment, poor customer service, poor telecommunication infrastructure and ineffective formulation and implementation of strategies. Effective competitive strategies can be viable tools towards effective and efficient growth and sustainability of the industry. Nonetheless, observed studies on the subject matter; competitive strategies and telecommunication performances within firms are still rare. The objectives of the research were investigating the impact of competitive strategy on telecommunication firm’s performances in Kenya with specific objectives of: - examining impact of cost leadership, differentiation and focus cost on performance of telecommunication firms in Kenya. The research was based on porters, goal setting, behavioral and resource based theories. Descriptive research design was used and it targeted 216 participants who included executive managers, accountants, middle level managers, supervisor’s engineers and accountants. It adopted a stratified random sampling to get the actual sample size bringing the number of sample size to 65 with 9 executive members, 11 accountant, 19 engineers, 12 middle level managers and 14 supervisors. Primary data was collected via questionnaire which was administered by dropping and picking. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS. Multi regression analysis was used to indicate the competitive strategies examined. The research established that focus cost, differentiation, focus differentiation and a cost leadership strategy has a positive and important effect on telecommunication companies’ performances. Pearson correlation analysis was used and it established that focus cost, differentiation, focus differentiation and cost leadership strategies had a positive and significant relation with Telecommunication Company’s performance and that it was good. The research recommended that there is need to improve corporate strategies for purposes of achieving increased performance within the firms. Further it recommended that there should be regular and frequent market surveys to determine performances, trends and needs. Lastly, the research recommended that there should be a consideration for demographic grouping in products and service pricing.


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CHALLENGES OF CREDIT CREATION BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW

Timothy Cheruiyot Bett

Tabitha Nasieku


ABSTRACT

The paper delved in an empirical review to assess the challenges of credit creation by commercial banks in Kenya. The findings indicated that though regulations, laws and requirements aim at ensuring the stability of the banking sector, it is notable that literature supports their negative influence in credit creation by commercial banks. In addition to the systematic challenges (regulations, laws and requirements), other challenges that are act externally to the banking sector, specifically, economic structure driven challenges such as high interest rates, fluctuating exchange rates multi-currency economy among others affect credit creation by commercial banks. The analysis determined that despite the fact that regulations, rules, and requirements seek to ensure the stability of the banking sector, it is noteworthy that literature supports the detrimental effect that regulations, laws, and requirements have on commercial banks' capacity to create credit. Other challenges that act externally to the banking sector, specifically economic structure driven challenges such as high interest rates, fluctuating exchange rates, multi-currency economies, and others, affect credit creation by commercial banks. These challenges are in addition to the systemic challenges.


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INFLUENCE OF STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF LECTURERS AT RONGO UNIVERSITY, KENYA

Langat Pauline Chemutai - Master of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Rongo University, Kenya

Ombito Elizabeth Khalili - Lecturer: School of Education, Rongo University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Despite having staff training policies as well as human resource policy and procedure manual to guide and govern training and development of employees, Rongo University is still having challenges related to employee performance. Failure to attract qualified academic staff may be due to lack of opportunities for professional development in the University. This study therefore sought to investigate the influence of strategic talent management practices on academic performance of lecturers at Rongo University. To the management of Rongo University, the study provides relevant information to develop strategies in an effort to improve lecturers’ academic performance. To the policy makers, the study provides information that can be used in formulation of laws and policies that enhance talent management strategies. The study adds more information to the body of knowledge on training and development and performance of lecturers. The study used a descriptive research design. The target population of this study was 102 academic staff at Rongo University: graduate assistants, tutorial fellows, assistant lecturers, lecturers, senior lecturers, associate professors and professors. The sample size was 82 staff who were selected by use of stratified random sampling. The research made use of primary data together with secondary data. The secondary data source was the annual reports and policies from Rongo University while primary data was gathered through use of semi-structured questionnaires. Thematic analysis was deployed in analyzing qualitative data then presentation of results were in a narrative form. Through the help of SPSS (version 22) quantitative data was analyzed through use of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The research used descriptive statistics in determining mean, frequency distribution and percentage. Inferential statistics comprised of correlation analysis as well as multivariate regression analysis. The research results were presented in tables, bar charts and pie charts. The study found that staff training and development has an insignificant effect on academic performance of lecturers at Rongo University (p-value=0.000). The study found that Rongo University provided little training to the academic staff and about half of the academic staff had received training since they got employed in Rongo University. The study recommends that the University should provide frequent training specific for academic staff. These trainings should include research training, pedagogical training, supervision training, and leadership training. In addition, the study therefore recommends that the university should develop mentorship programs where the senior academic staff can mentor the junior academic staff.


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COVID 19 PANDEMIC AND PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA

Betty Kiptoo - Master of Business Administration, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya.

Dr. Susan Wasike - Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya.

Priscilla Mote - Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya.


ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 virus in December 2019 has led to unprecedented economic shocks that have been experienced across the globe. The virus has spread to virtually all the countries across the globe. Many governments responded by imposing lockdowns, curfews, social distancing among other measures to curb the spread of the virus. The impact of the pandemic was so severe that it led to business closure, disruption of supply chain dynamics, mass layoffs, suppressed demand for goods and services, slump in production and loss of income. The main objective of this study was to establish the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The specific objectives were: to establish the effect of global trade supply chain disruptions, assess the effect of financial fragility/instability on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya, determine the effect of shrinking/reduction in demand on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya, and examine the effect of operational interruptions on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was grounded on three landmark theories, namely: contingency theory, dynamic capabilities theory and resource-based view theory. The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional research design. The population was a census of 39 registered commercial banks as at 31/12/2020. The unit of analysis was the management of the 3 departments consisting of senior management team, middle-level managers as well as managers at functional level. Data was categorized into two groups: secondary data and primary data. Primary data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires. Secondary data was obtained from the published financial statements by various banks as posted in their respective websites as well as the specific departments that deal with specific issues of interest. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Various statistical procedures such as frequencies, measures of central tendencies (mean, medium and mode) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation, range and variance) were computed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study used multiple regression. The results were presented using graphs, tables and charts for ease of understanding which allowed for interpretation of findings generated and recommendations from the findings to be made. The study found that bank employees were affected by the high transportation cost, there has been high turn-around time, in the bank, there have been disruptions in logistics, and the bank was affected by the increased cost of supplies. The research also found that the bank increased the accessibility to funds and did not generated a lot of profits. The study found that it was uncertain whether the customer flow in our bank reduced and the bank had a good number of investments. The research found that the banks did not deal with the operating time by putting employees to work in shifts. The study concluded that operational interruptions had the greatest effect on the performance of commercial banks in Kenya, followed by shrinking/reduction demand for investment, then global trade supply chain disruptions while financial fragility/instability had the least effect to the performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The research recommends that commercial banks should adopt financial innovations in enhancing their financial stability. Some of the financial innovations recommended that commercial banks should adopt included modern methods of financial reconciliations, modern risk assessment method. The commercial banks should also diversify their earning to enhance their financial stability.


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