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NATURAL RESOURCE BASED CONFLICTS IN TANA RIVER COUNTY, KENYA

Shadrack Kipkemoi - Masters Student, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Prof. Gideon Nyamasyo - University of Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. John Musingi - University of Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Though the conflict in Tana River has been on and off for a long time, it has heightened in the recent past to worrying proportions. This has led to a need for further analysis of the conflict to unearth the other factors which may be fuelling the conflict. The emerging factors may include political influence, availability of firearms, from unstable neighboring countries and alienation of large tracts of land for agricultural production. Another factor which may be contributing to conflict is the perceived or actual marginalization of the communities by the state who has systematically failed to adequately respond and address the conflicts, which has led to communities arming themselves against their rival groups. The overall objective of this study was to analyze the causes and impacts of conflicts on the social and economic development in Tana River County. Specific objectives are: (1) to establish the factors that has continued to enhance conflicts; and (2) to assess the economic effects of the conflict in Tana River. The literature reviewed includes secondary data concerning conflicts, pastoralism and food security, with specific reference to Tana River. The  literature  covers  detailed  study  on pastoralism  in  Kenya  and  the  attendant  conflicts. A major stakeholder in Tana river was analyzed to elucidate their roles in the conflicts and conflict resolution. In this study the conceptual framework of interaction is applied to explain the various relationships. The frame work shows that there are many factors that lead to conflicts and the factors can be classified as immediate Intermediate and Structural. The frame work also recognizes that there are various actors in the conflict and this include: pastoralists, farmers, fisher folk, leaders, administrators, CSOs, NGOs, government, women and children.


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NATURAL RESOURCE BASED CONFLICTS IN TANA RIVER COUNTY, KENYA

Shadrack Kipkemoi - Masters Student, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Prof. Gideon Nyamasyo - University of Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. John Musingi - University of Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The overall objective of this study was to analyze the causes and impacts of conflicts on the social and economic development in Tana River County. Specific objectives are: (1) to determine the impact of conflict on education and health service provision; (2) determine the impact of the conflicts on food security. In this study the conceptual framework of interaction is applied to explain the various relationships. The framework shows that there are many factors that lead to conflicts and the factors can be classified as immediate intermediate and structural. The framework also recognizes that there are various actors in the conflict and this include: pastoralists, farmers, fisher folk, leaders, administrators, CSOs, NGOs, Government, Women and children.


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INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON PRODUCTIVITY OF STATE CORPORATIONS IN KENYA: A CASE OF KENYA CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY

David Ontweka Ondieki - Masters Degree in Business Administration, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Samson Nyangau Paul - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Lydia Kwamboka Mbura - Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya


ABSTRACT

The hypercompetitive business environment has pushed organizations to limits dictating the need to adopt strategic management practices that support plans, choices and decisions that will lead to competitive advantage and to archive profitability, success and wealth creation. Inadequacy of safety oversight personnel and technical guidance material if unchecked has the potential to create unsafe acts that could hinder identification and resolution of safety deficiencies and the attainment of enhanced safety, efficiency and continuity of aviation operations. There is insufficient literature on how the various drivers of strategy implementation have influenced the productivity of the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of strategic management practices on productivity of state corporations in with a special focus on the Kenya Civil Aviation Authority. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of organizational policies, organization strategies and leadership styles on productivity of Kenya Civil Aviation Authority. The study utilized the descriptive research design. The research was hinged at the headquarters’ directorates with a staff population of 155 employees. The stratified random sampling technique was used in order to obtain a representative sample of 110 respondents using Krejcie and Morgan formula for determining the needed sample size. The study utilized questionnaires and interviews as instruments of collecting primary data. Quantitative Data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. On the other hand, qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. A multiple regression model was used to ascertain the influence that independent variables have on the dependent variable. The study found that although KCAA had organizational policies in place, several weaknesses in the policy impeded the realization of full productivity like the code of conduct and conflict of interest was poorly articulated. Strategic planning and its application have the potential of reviewing that what is in real life situations which can lead to increased productivity. The current leadership rarely engaged employees in strategic management process, considerable percentage of KCAA employees were totally unaware of the provisions of the ethical policy. The study therefore concludes that leadership styles had the greatest effect on productivity of Kenya Civil Aviation Authority followed by organizational strategies while organizational policies had the least effect on productivity of Kenya Civil Aviation Authority. The study recommends that top management of KCAA should consider revising the current organizational policies; this should be done in view of filling the gap that exists in inclusivity among the employees and the management.  KCAA management must align the organizational structure with initiatives and established goals within the organization i.e. organizational at structure must remain flexible. The research also recommends that the KCAA should work to ensure that that internal flow of activities are effective as the quality of coordination was found to be a crucial factor for productivity.


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TABLE BANKING AND THE GROWTH OF WOMEN OWNED MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES IN UHURU MARKET, NAIROBI COUNTY

Josephine Mwikali Ngumbau - Master of Business Administration, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya

Dorothy Kirimi - Lecturer, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya

Dr. Thomas A. Senaji - Lecturer, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Micro and small enterprises contributes a lot to the growth of any country’s economy in the world and have been widely accepted as an engine of economic growth and innovation.  Most of these enterprises are owned by women who are the largest poor in society and face difficulties in accessing credit from financial institutions to start or expand their small enterprises due to conditions that they cannot meet. The research study therefore assessed the relationship between table banking and the growth of women owned micro and small enterprises in Uhuru market, focusing on access to credit, professional support, networks and access to information which are made possible through table banking framework. A descriptive approach was used to collect data and the target population comprised of selected women owned micro and small enterprises.  The sample was drawn from a population of 400 MSEs. Out of this, 300 owners practice table banking.  A simple random sampling was used to select 30% from the 300, which formed a sample size of 90 respondents who participated.  Data was analyzed using SPSS and the findings from the study brought the results of the variables that the researcher hypotheses as an existing gap that hinder the growth of women owned MSEs in Uhuru Market, Nairobi County. The study revealed that women who own these MSEs obtained their opening capital from personal savings, friends and relatives. They regularly receive funds from their Group (Chama) through table banking framework.  Education and management training was found to be a key factor and technology, financial and management skill are key areas which the women need to be well conversant in order to excel in their businesses.   The high cost of developing networks, new business contacts and relationships by women who own MSEs has been a big barrier to the performance of their enterprises and access to business information is important for improved performance, survival and growth. Table banking had positive significant influence on the growth of women owned MSEs.  The order of importance from the most to the list in influencing growth was access to information, access to credit, professional support and lastly networking which had a positive but insignificant influence on growth. The study conclude that lack of access to local credit, gaps in the provision of business information on finances, market linkages and other support services constrain the growth of women owned MSEs. Women entrepreneurs should also come together and form business social networks for the purposes of pooling their financial resources together to allow easy access to credit from financial institutions in order to improve the growth of their MSEs. The concept of table banking should be embraced by the government with policies formulated and implemented that address the needs of women who own MSES.


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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INCOME GENERATING PROJECTS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ISIOLO NORTH SUB COUNTY, KENYA

Sadia Mohamud Adan - Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. Peter Keiyoro Ph.D - Senior Lecturer, University of Nairobi, Kenya


ABSTRACT

Education plays a significant role not only to the individuals but also to the society as a whole. Financing of education has been a shared partnership between the government and other development partners’. Government subsidy which is meant to cater for the tuition and operational expenses has been found to be inadequate. In this regard, secondary schools have been urged to initiate income-generating projects to support their budget deficits. The idea of school-based Income Generating Projects becomes necessary for schools to cope with macro-economic dynamics, without necessarily passing down budgetary adjustments to parents. Although the government has tried to intervene and support financing of public secondary schools in the country, the problem of financing still exist in our schools. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing the implementation of income generating projects in public secondary schools in Isiolo North Sub County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives which sought to establish the influence of personnel qualifications, supervision, support from staff members and adequate capital investment influence the implementation of Income Generating Projects as an alternative source of financing public secondary schools in Isiolo North Sub-County. The study used descriptive survey design. The target population consisted of 9 public secondary schools in Isiolo North Sub-County. The study targeted one Sub County director of Education 9 secondary school Principals, 9BOM members, and 9 chair persons of the PTA members in Isiolo North Sub-County. The sample size was nine principals; 9 chairpersons of the BOM and nine chairpersons of the PTA. Interview schedules, observation checklist and the questionnaires was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages was used to summarize the data. The study found that training in project management had been undertaken in many schools. The study found that most schools lack proper supervision procedures for their Income generating projects, that in most of the schools, members of staff are involved in the decision on the Income generating projects to be implemented and that lack of initial capital has hindered the implementation of Income generating projects. The study concluded that personnel qualifications, supervision, adequate capital investment and support from staff members influence implementation of Income Generating Projects positively. The study recommended that budgeting for the income generating projects should be executed at the right time and should be adhered to enhance implementation of Income generating projects and that the government through the Ministry of Education (MoE) should organize training programs on project management, financial management and monitoring and evaluation for school heads.


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