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Julius Suka Kasuni - Mount Kenya University, Kenya

Dr. Evans Nyamboga Mandere - Mount Kenya University, Kenya

Dr. Phelista W. Njeru - Mount Kenya University, Kenya


The defining feature of Strategic Leadership, in corporate governance is the establishment of a clear road map which defines the purpose and future of the corporation. Central Bank of Kenya financial reports showed a declining trend during the period 2015-2019. Returns on Assets (ROA) declined from 4.51% to 3.84% and Returns on Equity (ROE) from 29.4% to 25.6%. The Study sought to critically analyze influence of Strategic Leadership on Financial Performance of Commercial banks in Kenya. The study targeted 112 respondents from 8 commercial Banks in Tier 1 of the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) Classification. The researcher used Exploratory Research Design for undertaking the study. Primary data were collected by use of both a closed-ended and open-ended questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of both descriptive and inferential statistics. The analyzed data were presented using tables. The finding of the Study was that there was a significant positive correlation between Strategic Leadership and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The study recommended that Strategic Leadership be entrenched in corporate governance in commercial banks to improve financial performance. The findings of this study were generalized and recommended for use in the banking industry in Kenya.

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Magdalene Mwende Gitari - Post Graduate Student, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Shano Mohamed - Lecturer in School of Business and Economics, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Guyo Huka - Lecturer in School of Business and Economics, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya


Commercial banks’ working environment is the most highly regulated environment around the globe and this explains why banking regulations continually attract theoretical scrutiny. In Kenya, the Central bank of Kenya sets the rules and the regulations that every bank is supposed to operate by. Such regulations and guidelines are important as they are meant to protect the interest of depositors, creditors and investors as well as promoting integrity in financial markets. Commercial banks in Kenya have faced challenges related to performance that include decline in profits, being placed under receivership while at the same time registering high number of nonperforming loans. This has happened in the wake of revision of guidelines and regulations under CBK Act (Chapter 491, Kenyan law). This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of credit risk management regulations on profitability of commercial banks listed by Nairobi Securities Exchange. This research was directed by the theory of balanced portfolio. This research applied a descriptive research design. Population of interest were managers at the three levels of management; risk and compliance, credit and finance department in all 11 registered commercial banks which are listed in the NSE. This research used secondary data and primary data. A trial study was done to enhance reliability and validity of the research instrument. Both qualitative and quantitative data was produced by the research. The researcher further used multiple regression analysis Results to show that credit risk management practices play an important role in ensuring smooth banking operation in that sufficient capital helped in cushioning risk such as default in loan repayment. The study concludes that credit risk management practices had a positive significant impact on banks profitability, for instance, proper information evaluation before approving loans to the customers is a good credit risk management system that eventually enhances banks profitability. The study recommends that the commercial banks come up with strong credit risk management procedures. Such procedures should entail creditworthiness, investment viability appraisals and credit insurance measures.

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Diana Navalya Asava - Master of Public Health, Department of Population, Reproductive Health and Community Resource Management, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr. James Otieno Ochieng - Department of Human Anatomy, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr. James O. Ogutu - Department of Pathology, Kenyatta University, Kenya


The increased maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya among women living with HIV and AIDS can be attributed to high unmet needs of family planning at 52%. In Kenya there are approximately 1.5 million people living with HIV and 36000 people die annually due to HIV related diseases. In Kenya the uptake of intra-uterine device in the general population is 3.4% compared to other modern methods. The study therefore aims at improving Intra-uterine contraceptive device uptake among women living with HIV/AIDS in selected health facilities in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The study specifically focuses on knowledge and barriers associated with intra-uterine device uptake in Nairobi City County. The study adopted a cross sectional-descriptive study design to collect data through a researcher administered questionnaires through research assistants. A total of 353 participants were interviewed from the selected facilities of Mathare North health Center, Huruma Lions Health Center and Pumwani Majengo Health Center which were purposively chosen. The study used quantitative collection methods. Systematic random sampling was used to select primary respondents at a predetermined interval of 8. Quantitative data was cleaned and entered into a Microsoft excel database before being analyzed by SPSS version 22.0. Descriptive statistics were presented using percentages, frequency tables, graphs and pie-charts. Inferential statistics were calculated to establish the association between study variables using chi-square tests done at 95% confidence interval. The results revealed that only 4.8% of respondents utilized intra-uterine contraceptive device. The study established low knowledge levels on intra-uterine device among women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi City County. Knowledge levels were significantly associated with utilization intra-uterine contraceptive device (p=0.047). A number of factors were identified as possible barrier which hindered intra-uterine contraceptive device uptake which included facility reception (p=0.026), provision of information (p=0.002), culture/religion (p=0.004) and spouse allows use (p=0.002). The study concludes that there were low utilization rates and low knowledge levels on intra-uterine contraceptive device. The study further concludes that other barriers were possible reasons for low uptake of intra-uterine uptake among women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi City County. The findings of this study would help relevant stakeholders in structuring programs and strategize on interventions to improve intra-uterine contraceptive uptake among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Nairobi City County and the country at large. This will discourage reliance on wrong knowledge on IUCD so as to reduce the unmet needs of family planning and reduce unintended pregnancies that crop up in the long run.

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Sinkeletika Nyawira Kinyua - Master of Business Administration Student (Finance option), Kenyatta University, Kenya

Dr. Ambrose Jagong’o - Lecturer, Department of Accounting and Finance, Kenyatta University, Kenya


Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) in non-industrial nations and Kenya specifically face various difficulties in their way to development and extension. Despite the numerous new companies and government exertion to improve the administrative and institutional structure in Kenya, most SMEs do not advance into medium enterprises. So, this survey intended to determine the influence of financial strategies on growth of SMEs in Kerugoya Town, Kirinyaga County, Kenya. The objectives of the survey were; to determine the effect of investment practices, accounting information systems, financial reporting and funding on the growth of SMEs in in Kerugoya Town, Kirinyaga County, Kenya. This survey was guided by Mental Budget Theory, Grameen model and Hierarchical Order Theory. The research used a causal research design and mainly show the current state of affairs. The study targeted 150 SMEs operating in Kerugoya town, Kirinyaga County and registered with the Kirinyaga County Government in 2019. Stratified random sampling was utilized to choose 109 SMEs. Questionnaires were utilized to obtain data. To ensure reliability and validity, this questionnaire was piloted to seven participants who were not within the area of the research. Determine the reliability of the study; Cronbach's alpha was calculated and an alpha more than 0.7 was obtained, which demonstrated that the tool is reliable. The gathered data were analyzed by the aid of 23rd edition of the Social Science Statistical Package (SPSS). The data analyzed were displayed through frequency tables, pie charts, and bar charts. The survey findings show that investment practices, financial reporting, accounting information systems and funding significance impacted the growth of SMEs in Kerugoya Town since the P-value is less than 0.05. The survey recommended that finance organizations ought to take on more forceful administrative preparing techniques that have sectorial way to deal with prod development. These methodologies could remember esteem chain expansion for item and administration lines and plan more market entrance systems.

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Evans Mwasiaji (PhD) - Department of Business Administration, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Kisilu Kombo (PhD) - Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta University, Kenya

Fredrick Gravenir (PhD) - Department of Education Management, Policy & Curriculum Studies, Kenyatta University, Kenya


The purpose of this study was to review literature using a meta-analysis approach in collecting data to identify gaps in the phenomenon of sustainable development goals, social entrepreneurship education, regulatory framework and its link to sustainability objectives. The study established that progress in vital areas of the global sustainability agenda, including reducing inequality, lowering carbon emissions and tackling hunger, had either stalled or reversed. Activities necessary in the global sustainability agenda amidst coronavirus disease outbreak are non-binding with countries expected to create their own national plans, including the sources and extent of required financing remaining ambiguous, resulting in little global progress towards the desired objectives. There are also social entrepreneurship education related research gaps, in addition to studies proposing varied models on how best to realize the 2030 global sustainability agenda. This study concluded that young people especially without jobs, children out of school, families without hope, displaced people or those living in fragile or conflict afflicted areas will be left behind especially in the context of COVID-19. This study argues that sustainable development goals can be realized if government, academia and other stakeholders move beyond the current forms of engagement and have social entrepreneurship education cascaded to lower levels of the school curricula. The study has therefore proposed an integrated theoretical model upon which propositions at the abstraction level can be advanced and empirically tested as part of the research agenda.

Full Length Research (PDF Format)