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Shadrack Kipkemoi - Masters Student, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Prof. Gideon Nyamasyo - University of Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. John Musingi - University of Nairobi, Kenya


Though the conflict in Tana River has been on and off for a long time, it has heightened in the recent past to worrying proportions. This has led to a need for further analysis of the conflict to unearth the other factors which may be fuelling the conflict. The emerging factors may include political influence, availability of firearms, from unstable neighboring countries and alienation of large tracts of land for agricultural production. Another factor which may be contributing to conflict is the perceived or actual marginalization of the communities by the state who has systematically failed to adequately respond and address the conflicts, which has led to communities arming themselves against their rival groups. The overall objective of this study was to analyze the causes and impacts of conflicts on the social and economic development in Tana River County. Specific objectives are: (1) to establish the factors that has continued to enhance conflicts; and (2) to assess the economic effects of the conflict in Tana River. The literature reviewed includes secondary data concerning conflicts, pastoralism and food security, with specific reference to Tana River. The  literature  covers  detailed  study  on pastoralism  in  Kenya  and  the  attendant  conflicts. A major stakeholder in Tana river was analyzed to elucidate their roles in the conflicts and conflict resolution. In this study the conceptual framework of interaction is applied to explain the various relationships. The frame work shows that there are many factors that lead to conflicts and the factors can be classified as immediate Intermediate and Structural. The frame work also recognizes that there are various actors in the conflict and this include: pastoralists, farmers, fisher folk, leaders, administrators, CSOs, NGOs, government, women and children.

Full Length Research (PDF Format)