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Abdullahi Garba - Department of History, Faculty of Arts, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Zainab Gimba (PhD) - Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

Shettima Bukar Kullima (PhD) - Department of History, Faculty of Arts, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria


Africa has been identified by the West as the most volatile and susceptible in terms of conflict and other forms of disturbances that hinders peace, progress and development of the continent. The antecedents leading to the variant crises in Africa had long-rooted history in most instances which becomes “generational”. Ethnic conflict is the worst of all forms of crises to the fact that it takes different dimensions when ignited. This paper attempts a critical overview of the causes, nature and dimension, mediation and consequences of ethnic crises on Africa with specific reference to Nigeria, South Sudan, Kenya, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. The methodological approach adopted in this research is “qualitative method”. Secondary source materials have been utilized, which comprised mainly published books that have been critically analyzed. This paper found out that ethnic conflict/crisis is the root cause of all forms of conflicts/crises such as political, religious, communal, civil wars, wars, coup etc. In conclusion, it has been observed that ethnic conflict is the major stumbling block to Africa’s development. If solved, Africa and the world will achieve relative peace and development because the resources that are directed for humanitarian services as a result of crises would be channeled towards developmental programs.

Full Length Research (PDF Format)